Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. Third generation (1965-1974 AD) 4. Vacuum tubes generated too much heat, were very large, and proved to be unreliable. The creation of the transistor made possible a new generation of computers, faster and much smaller and, moreover, with less need for ventilation. C#. 1.1 GENERATION OF COMPUTERS The first electronic computer was designed and built at the University of Pennsylvania based on vacuum tube technology. It also implemented the commercial use of microprograms, and user-friendly instructions for their use to process many types of data, not just numerical (arithmetic). On the other hand, computer programs that were conceived during the first generation were improved, since new programming languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN were developed. Techopedia explains Second Generation (Programming) Language (2GL) Assembly Languages originated in the 1940s, and are attributed to the efforts of the American naval officer Grace Hopper, with the introduction of the FLOW-MATIC language for the ENIAC computer. 7. Now in this article, we are going to list out . Fig: Architecture of computer. Computer Mouse and GUI make computers more enjoyable. The main technology for Second Generation was transistors (1956-1963). This advance made computers faster, smaller, lighter, more reliable and with less need for ventilation, making them also commercially accessible and powerful. They took up less space and produced less heat than computers that operated with vacuum tubes. It would take operators days or even weeks to set-up a new problem. Vaccum tubes are replaced by transistors. The input for these computers were higher level languages like COBOL, FORTRAN etc. A) Computer Characteristics & Capabilities – 1. See computer generations, IBM 1401 and Honeywell. 4. More laptops. It was the last commercial, scientific mainframe computer, and the transistorized version of the earlier … They were a big improvement over the vacuum tube, despite still subjecting computers to damaging levels of heat. was developed, the first computer game. The world saw transistor replaced the vacuum tubes in the second generation of computers. Examples of second generation computers were: UNIVAC 1108 The first computers used vacuum tubes and occupied a considerable space (up to 30m long). INDEX 3. A transistor computer, now often called a second generation computer, is a computer which uses discrete transistors instead of vacuum tubes.The first generation of electronic computers used vacuum tubes, which generated large amounts of heat, were bulky and unreliable. These computing machines make usage of the transistors invented by Bell Telephone research labs and they had many of the same constituents as the contemporary computing machine. The computers built in the 1950s and 1960s are considered the 2nd generation computers. Uses of second generation computers . They were built with transistor electronics. The second generation of computers heralds the use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes. This generation marked a new era that was defined by the replacement of vacuum valves by transistors, which implied the creation of more reliable computers with less ventilation needs, making them commercially accessible and powerful. In order to create the first flight simulator, the U.S. Navy used second-generation computers. First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. The second generation of computers did not represent an opening to the mass market; The developed models were not even conceived as household machinery, and it took a few years to really adapt to a market, so be specialized. Fourth generation (1975 AD- till the date) 5. The input of this system was based on punched cards and paper tape; however, the output was displayed on printouts. In computers, they functioned as an electronic switch or bridge. Example of this generations include: UNIVAC, ENICA, EDVAC. Also known as a 2nd generation language. Fifth Generation of Computers: Now we use the Fifth Generation of Computers which were started around 1982. In the second generation, the size of the computers began to decrease thanks to the creation of transistors to process information. The computers used batch processing and multiprogramming operating system. Featured computers from the second generation. Advantages. 6. 8. It had a storage capacity of 5 megabytes of data. 5. Speed– Relatively fast as compared to first generation, thousand instruct… The replacement of vacuum tubes by transistors saw the advent of the second generation of computing. This video is about: 2nd Generation of Computer . IBM developed the first high-level general-purpose programming language, FORTRAN. Each of them was soldered on top of a circuit board that served to connect to other individual components. ALGOL. 7. The invention of the transistor made possible a new generation of computers with the following characteristics: The creation of transistors and their use in computer manufacturing, triggered a series of events in the history of computing, not only because it represented a significant technological advance, but also initiated a new stage in equipment commercialization. Five Generations of computer. 4. They were programmed with high level languages which allowed new utilities in which they could be used. Ferrite core memory and magnetic drums replaced cathode ray tubes and delay-line storage for main memory. 9. However, acquisition costs remained high. Its original components were very simple. Some of the computers that were already built with transistors in this period were: IBM 1401; Honeywell 800 and 5000 series; UNIVAC M460; The IBM 7090 and 7094; NCR 315; The RCA 501 and 601 Basic Computer Language. Ultimately, they served as an update for using less power and space. These computers were more reliable and in place of vacuum tubes, used transistors. FORTRAN. BASIC. In addition, the use of high level languages allowed the improvement in program implementation and its use in airline reservation systems, air traffic control and general purpose simulations. The object-oriented programming was used in the fourth generation of computer.Various types of language exist in object-oriented programming such as Java, Visual Basic, etc. Second generation computers also used magnetic core networks instead of rotating drums for primary storage. 3. This equipment was characterized for using 50 metal disks of 61 cm, with 100 tracks per side. Vacuum tubes were used to perform logic operations and to store data. First generation (1945-1954 AD) 2. Examples of the second generation comp… In these computers, primary memorywas stored on the magnetic cores and magnetic tape and they used magnetic disks as secondary storage devices. They contained a semi-conductor material that could change its electrical state when pulsed. In this generation, assembly language and high-level programming languages like FORTRAN, COBOL were used. 200 transistors could be accommodated in the same amount of space as a vacuum tube, a characteristic that made them faster, smaller, and more reliable. Second-generation-computer definitions A computer made of discrete transistors and other electronic components. Other computers that used transistors include the IBM 7070, Philco Transac S-1000, and RCA 501. IBM had two product lines, a “commercial” product line and a “scientific” line, which were unified into one. Transistors were smaller than vacuum tubes and allowed computers to be smaller in size, faster in speed, and cheaper to build. Examples of this generation computer are STAR 1000, CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer), PDP 11, DEC 10, and CRAY-1. The 2nd generation Computers were m ore reliable ; Used less energy and were not heated. These cores contained small rings of linked magnetic material in which data and instructions could be stored. Computers developed between 1959-1965 the second generation computers. Thanks to this, they had other advantageous features: 1. COBOL. In this generation, magnetic cores were used as the primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices. The distinguishing feature of second generation computers (1956-1963) is that they used discrete transistors mounted on printed circuit cards. Size– Smaller than first generation Computers. The term transistor derives from the combination of the English words transfer resistor, and is an electronic, semiconductor device with multiple functions such as amplify, oscillate, switch or rectify. In this generation, transistors were used that were cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first generation machines made of vacuum tubes. The invention of transistor lead to start the second generation of computers. Available for any type of person. In the early 1960s, the IBM 1401 and Honeywell 400 were examples. Wider commercial use; Better portability as compared to the first generation computers. The period of second generation was from 1959-1965. Physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley, who knowing the properties of the silicon found in quartz stones, after years of research finally conceived the transistor. Second-generation programming language The second generation of computers covered the period from 1959 to 1964. The period of second generation was from 1959-1965. 2. Delphi Smaller, cheaper, more efficient and faster than second generation computers; High-level programming languages; Magnetic storage; Examples: Well-known computers in this generation include the DEC PDP series and the IBM-360 series computers. Some examples of third generation computers are the IBM System/360, IBM 1130, UNIVAC 1107, Apollo Flight Computer, Minuteman II Guidance Computer, UNIVAC … Generations of Computer: 1. These computers make use of the transistors invented by Bell Telephone laboratories and they had many of the same components as the modern-day computer. 2. Example of Second Generation of Computer: 1. The second generation of computers saw the use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes. The IBM 7094 is the computer of the second generation. First Generation of mordern computer (1946 - 1954) The period of first generation was 1946 - 1954. 6. Computers of first generation used vacuum tubes as the basic components for memory and circuitry for Central Processing Unit.The first electronic computer, ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and calculator) was developed in 1947 at the University of Pennsylvania, USA. They used networks of magnetic cores instead of rotating drums for primary storage, containing small rings of linked magnetic material in which data and instructions could be stored. Smaller in size as compared to the first generation computers. The most important characteristicof fourth generation computers is undoubtedly their size, which was due to the use of microprocessor technology / VLSI. They generate a lot of heat; They consume of a lot of electricity ; They where very bulkey in size; They were expensive. The second generation is the Transistor Generation. 2. Second Generation (Transistors) Year 1956 – 1963 Characteristics > Used transistors instead of vacuum tubes for circuitry, which enabled computers of this generation to become smaller, faster, cheaper and more energy-efficient > Used magnetic core instead of magnetic drums as … There are some computers of the second generation, which are given below: IBM 7094; IBM 1620; CDC 1604; CDC 3600; UNIVAC1108; Honeywell 400; Computer Architecture of IBM 7094. The first computer to use transistors was the TX-0 and was introduced in 1956. Large companies began to use the computer for storage, registration, inventory management, payroll and accounting. Examples are the IBM 1401, IBM 7090 and 7094, UNIVAC 1107, PDP-1 and 8. Examples: ENIAC – Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator. Computers began to decrease in size, and small magnetic rings were used to store information and instructions. For programming purpose besides machine and assembly languages, high level languages were also used like FORTRAN, COBOL and BASIC etc. By 1960, IBM launched the IBM 1620 mainframe. In this generation, magnetic cores were used as the primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices. In the First Generation, Computer and vacuum tube were the main components at that time as a technology for a computer. Second Generation Computers Sample The computing machines built in the 1950s and 1960s are considered the 2nd coevals computing machines. They replaced the job of vacuum tubes through the 1950s and 1960s. C++. The transistors were smaller than vacuum tubes and allowed computers to be smaller in size, faster in speed and cheaper to build. C. 5. The examples of second generation computers are IBM 7094 series, IBM 1400 series and CDC 164 etc. The microprocessor chips are used in this generation of computers. A couple of years later, in 1962, Spacewar! In order to create the first flight simulator, the U.S. Navy used second-generation computers. However, the cost remained high. Second generations of computer (1955-1964 AD) 3. Well, these generation computers use the high level of languages like Perl, Python, C, JAVA, etc. Transistors Replaced Vaccum Tube. The second generation of computers marks a milestone in computer history thanks to the technological advance that meant the creation of transistors to process information to replace vacuum tubes. Index registers and floating point arithmetic hardware became widespread. Finally, in 1964, IBM released the 360 series, made up of computers that were characterized by running the same software in different combinations of speed, capacity and price. The first models of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry. Fifth generation (Developing process) 3. This made them far more compact than the first generation computers. It used a magnetic core memory with more than 60,000 decimal digits. Generations of computers has been divided into five according to the development of technologies used to fabricate the processors, memories and I/O units. Much smaller size. Transistors were widely used in computers from 1956 to 1963. The Five Generations of Computers can be described as the overall development of computer technology respective to their size, power, PC memory, cost, and application. Magnetic Drums: Punched Cards: Paper Tape: Disadvantages . Subsequently, in 1959, IBM continued its evolution and created the most successful machine in computing history (12,000 units sold): the IBM 1401 transistor-based mainframe. It proved to be a popular scientific computer reaching sales of approximately 2000 units. The first generation is the Vacuum Tube Generation. Much less expensive. second generation computers second generation computers where manufactured using transistors, rather than vacuum tube. In addition, DEC launched the PDP-1, its first machine primarily aimed at laboratory technicians and research staff. The term was coined to provide a distinction from higher level machine independent third-generation programming languages (3GL) such as COBOL and earlier first-generation programming languages (machine code). second generation computer (architecture) A computer built from transistors, designed between the mid-1950s and mid-1960s. In its normal state, the semi-conductor was not conductive, but when a certain voltage was applied to it, it became conductive and the electric current flowed through it. It acted as a transmitter and resistor (ergo its name; ‘trans’, ‘istor'). ... Every home has several examples of embedded computers. Second-generation programming language (2GL) is a generational way to categorize assembly languages.. Some of the computers that were already built with transistors in this period were: Characteristics of the second generation of computers, History of the second generation of computers, Inventions of the second generation of computers, Inventors of the second generation of computers, Featured computers from the second generation. For data storage magnetic tapes and magnetic tapes and magnetic disks were used. It used punched cards and a 4000 character magnetic core memory. William Bradford Shockley (13/02/1910 – 12 /08/1989), the physicist Walter Houser Brattain (Amoy, China, 10/02/1902 – 13/10/1987), and the electrical and physical engineer John Bardeen (Madison, United States 23/05/1908 – Boston, 30/01/1991), were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1956. UNIVAC – Universal Automatic Computer . The IBM 7090 was a transistorized version of the vacuum tube IBM 709 machine. In this generation, transistors were used that were cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first generation machines made of vacuum tubes. This transistor-based equipment used a perforated paper ribbon which quickly changed to punched cards. These computers differ from the previous four generations. More powerful and reliab… TYPES AND GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS 2. Computers could store more data in less space, 200 transistors could be accommodated in the same amount of space as a vacuum tube. Honeywell 400 2. Examples of third-generation Programming Languages : 1. Fig: computers of the second generation. The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples … In 1956, IBM sold its first magnetic disk system, the RAMAC (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control). The third generation is the Mini-Computer Generation. More powerful, more reliable, and less expensive, which made them more commercial. 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