Most of them are reflected as hydrogeomorphic units. Groundwater Prospecting and Management H P Patra. /F2 42 0 R Seismic The induced polarization method is extensively and effectively used in base metal mineral exploration (Fig. basaltic flow, could be obtained with this method. /F1 41 0 R >> /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI] scales, ground-based methods can provide the detailed information needed to inform decision making. /StructParents 2 The electrical resistivity method is widely used in groundwater investigation because of its simplicity in the field data handling procedure and interpretation (Lashkaripour and Nakhaei, 2005;Anomohanran, 2013;George et al., 2015a, George et al., 2015b. /K [21 0 R] 406 0 R 298 0 R 299 0 R 300 0 R 301 0 R 302 0 R 303 0 R 304 0 R 305 0 R 306 0 R /Resources << /Font << The greater the contrast of these properties. /Group << /Marked true An increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide possibly resulting from this volcanism gave rise to cooling of atmosphere that caused glaciation. /SA true /Contents 43 0 R Sectioning is carried out to provide cross-sections of the ground, generally to give details of beds and layers. It has better solution for no. /StructParents 6 Most of the liquid freshwater resources are stored underground as groundwater (99%). 2: Mineral exploration, detection of cavities. Crooked line survey is outcome of that modification where seismic profiles meander along the existing roads and possible paths. Regional fracture patterns in the region also coincide with the Satpura trend. 256 0 R 257 0 R 258 0 R 259 0 R 260 0 R 261 0 R 262 0 R 263 0 R 264 0 R 265 0 R relatively sensitive to vertical changes in the subsurface resistivity below the centre of the array. /F4 46 0 R /F3 45 0 R To, interpret the data from such a survey, it is normally assumed that the subsurface consists of, Another classical survey technique is the profiling method. >> discharge. 6 2.1 Resistivity Fig. /Workbook /Document The purpose of exploration is to detect the, indirect indicators and locate the potential zones for exploitation. /Contents 59 0 R Geophysical methods comprise, of measurement of signals from natural or induced phenomena of physical properties of sub, surface formation. /CS /DeviceRGB Geophysical methods detect the differences, or anomalies of physical, properties within the earth's crust. /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI] /Type /Page When a steady current in a cable. GEOS 4430 5310 Lecture Notes Groundwater … /F3 45 0 R /CS /DeviceRGB (2003), Balachandar D. et al. Techniques used for this purpose include electrical resistivity depth profiling, seismic methods, the surface wave technique, and geophysical borehole logging. << If a stronger current is made to flow through the conductor, the magnetic lines of, force become stronger. /ML 4 Geophysical investigations are conducted on the surface of the earth to explore the ground water. /Parent 2 0 R Some are surface techniques, but the majority are carried out down-hole. The high, resolution satellite images are interpreted (visually or digitally) to identify the groundwater, potential zones. The calculations are done using these two equations: from which p = 7r(a 2/b-b/4) (V M -VN /I). Finally the results of geophysical analyses in the second phase were used to select suitable drilling locations to access and extract karstic groundwater in the study area. << 383 0 R 384 0 R 385 0 R 386 0 R 387 0 R 388 0 R 389 0 R 390 0 R 391 0 R 392 0 R 410 0 R 392 0 R 393 0 R 394 0 R 395 0 R 397 0 R 398 0 R 399 0 R 400 0 R 401 0 R /P 3 0 R /S /Transparency /Resources << /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] GPR is an electromagnetic method which has advantage over the conventional methods by being more affordable, fast and non-invasive. /Tabs /S /Type /Page Fig. evaluation of groundwater potential using electrical resistivity method in okenugbo area, ago - iwoye, southwestern, nigeria. /Annots [63 0 R] /Type /Page The depth of investigation, is dependent on the coil spacing, orientation, operating frequency of the instrument, and the. The regional distribution on earth, however, varies and depends mainly on climatic conditions as well as the geology of the subsurface. /X9 26 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 180 0 R 181 0 R 182 0 R 183 0 R 184 0 R 185 0 R] The Palaeoproterozoic rocks of the area were subjected to compressional deformation regime during the time period 1800-1700 Ma. /StructTreeRoot 3 0 R The, Passive method uses the natural ground signals (e.g., magnetotellurics), natural sources like, lightning, magnetosphere activities, etc. >> /F3 45 0 R Occurrence of several earthquake prone areas in this region indicates that the region is tectonically active in present times. 8 [298 0 R 299 0 R 300 0 R 301 0 R 302 0 R 303 0 R 304 0 R 305 0 R 306 0 R 307 0 R /Font << /F2 42 0 R Risk management system should be preventive rather than being reactive because controlling water inundation hazard in development and commissioning phase of a mine is more effective in minimizing the associated cost and prohibiting the fatalities. For exploration depths of 1,500 to 2,500 feet, the seismic reflection and controlled source audio magnetotellurics / magnetotellurics (CSAMT/MT) methods have proven to be successful. Report on Groundwater Exploration at Mulga Rock Prospect, 1985 | February 1986 Groundwater Resource Consultants for PNC Exploration Pty Ltd Page 3 3. In the SP log, the potential drop between bore hole, electrode & a reference electrode @ the surface is recorded. 4 0 obj << >> /Dialogsheet /Part << Exploring these water sources become a challenging task to geo-scientists. /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI] /Resources << /StructParents 0 The SP logs are highly useful in, deciphering saline water & clay dominated zones. /Type /Page WATER‐QUALITY Samples of groundwater were submitted for analysis from bores 1329, 1330, 1331 and 1332, and from 1 [109 0 R 110 0 R 111 0 R 112 0 R 113 0 R 114 0 R 115 0 R 116 0 R 117 0 R 118 0 R 6 0 obj porosity, permeability, and ultimately the well yields. >> After compensating for the primary field, (which can be computed from the relative positions and orientations of the coils), both the, magnitude and relative phase of the secondary field can be measured. Modern Groundwater Exploration details applications and results of proven twenty-first- century technologies and geological concepts adapted from the oil, gas, and mineral exploration industries for evaluating, developing, and managing previously undiscovered, massive, sustainable groundwater resources. In many engineering and, environmental studies, the subsurface geology is very complex where the resistivity can change, rapidly over short distances. Let the current I enter the ground at A and return at B. endobj /Type /Group Post-glacial atmospheric changes caused prolific growth of organisms, biogenic reduction of sediments and deposition of high amount of organic carbon. /Font << 3 [147 0 R 148 0 R 149 0 R 150 0 R 151 0 R 152 0 R 153 0 R 154 0 R 155 0 R 156 0 R /CS /DeviceRGB /Group << Over the years, conventional method such as excavation and test boring are the tools used to … The method has little application to groundwater exploration. The electrode arrangement in these investigations are called as arrays. All rights reserved. sensing, the process involves an interaction between incident radiation and the targets of interest. /Tabs /S /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] /Font << /F5 51 0 R >> Thanks are due to DST and my colleagues. /Tabs /S The interpretation of each VES curve is carried out in two steps. Evidence of this glaciation is preserved in the sedimentary succession of the Sausar Group and Aravalli Group. /StructParents 7 /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI] /Type /Page >> 199 0 R 200 0 R 201 0 R 202 0 R 203 0 R 204 0 R 205 0 R 206 0 R 207 0 R 208 0 R /CS /DeviceRGB 2 [125 0 R 126 0 R 127 0 R 128 0 R 129 0 R 130 0 R 131 0 R 132 0 R 133 0 R 134 0 R �+Sl�V����˗���Gޗ"���%{O���ȇ�,Ej籬s�/�rF �}S��t���6�Z����;[�� Satellite data products are much varied depending upon the spectra considered. /Tabs /S /Parent 2 0 R /F4 46 0 R 179 0 R 180 0 R 181 0 R 182 0 R 183 0 R 184 0 R 185 0 R 186 0 R 187 0 R 188 0 R Swapan Kumar Haldar, in Mineral Exploration (Second Edition), 2018. >> km) thick in most areas. /Type /Page /Tabs /S Several statistical methods can also be adopted for groundwater mapping where adequate information on dif-ferent influencing parameters to groundwater accumulation and movement are available. Among these methods, esoteric method is not based on science, mostly based on traditional indicators. such a continued fascination for people to use despite its limitations. Groundwater Prospecting and Management H P Patra. /Footer /Sect /Font << Mine inundation is uncontrolled flow of water, brine or mud debris to active working of a mine from surface or underground source and remains immediate cause of quite a few mining disasters in the 21st century, regardless of regulations, legal sanctions and technological advance. The aim of this study is to identify groundwater potential by means of seismic refraction profiles. Aggregates embedded in the original strata or from heavily pulverized samples could not be identified; only weakly fragmented samples viewed right after acquisition showed aggregates, and thus, the close-up imager (CLUPI) on the ExoMover might provide information on cementation-related aggregation on the observing plate before crushing. /F6 29 0 R Unprecedented in both its scope and authority, this timely book presents: To maximize context information during subsurface exploration, rover imaging should be accomplished before crushing; however, currently planned imaging may not be ideal for this. /Tabs /S Under ideal circumstances, gravity variations might be used successfully in determining t h e depths of thick alluvial deposits bordering a mountain area or t h e locations of intrusive bodies constituting a n aquifer boundary (Todd, 1959). 7 0 obj /Lang (en-IN) /F1 41 0 R 208 0 R 208 0 R 208 0 R 208 0 R 208 0 R 208 0 R 208 0 R 208 0 R 208 0 R 208 0 R 15 0 obj 226 0 R 227 0 R 228 0 R 229 0 R 230 0 R 231 0 R 232 0 R 233 0 R 234 0 R 235 0 R In this case, the spacing between the, electrodes remains fixed, but the entire array is moved along a straight line. Assuming the medium below the surface, of the earth to be homogeneous and isotropic of resistivity p, the potentials V M and V N as. oladunjoye h.t.,1 1odunaike r.k., ogunsola p1. /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI] /StructParents 13 Logistically difficult and hostile terrain, The Satpura Province is covered by the Satpura Mountain Belt and the Deccan Traps. /BM /Normal As it is a hidden, resource, various indirect methods are attempted to identify the points. 15 chapter 6 groundwater exploration 15cv562 VTU StuDocu. Similarly, to the people of mountainous regions, natural springs provided the sources of water supply. 119 0 R 120 0 R 121 0 R 122 0 R 123 0 R 124 0 R] During Mesoproterozoic time the region was marked by the deposition of the Semri Group and development of eucaryotic algae. Such, zones are good and potential zones for groundwater exploration. Each of the above listed groundwater exploration methods have different sub-methods under them. and geotechnical investigations. the earth’s surface which are suitable for mineral explorations, water resources evaluation, environmental monitoring and groundwater targeting. depending on the, dissolved salts. 189 0 R 190 0 R 191 0 R 192 0 R 193 0 R 194 0 R 195 0 R 196 0 R 197 0 R 198 0 R …Their recovery method, well interference, multiple well systems, surface and subsurface exploitation and estimation of ground water potential, quality of ground water, artificial groundwater recharge planning, modelling, ground water project formulation. The strength of the magnetic field is directly proportional to the current, that flows through the conductor. >> /G10 23 0 R Groundwater prospecting and extraction CTCN. /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] 177 0 R 178 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R /Tabs /S In coarse, alluvial terrain, seismic velocity increases markedly from unsaturated to saturated zones. The integrated approach to solving complicated geological, hydrological and environmental problems is now widely used in geophysics. endobj Among these methods, esoteric method is not based on science, mostly based on traditional indicators. �^#�O1X��|�b[}[��� ����u�+oc[˹�v����)��V^v�����h��sFJyk��t��K� �-�� ��)&mG��[��Z� JP The surface geomorphological, geological, structural, hydrogeological, geophysical and remote sensing methods … 94 0 R 95 0 R 96 0 R 97 0 R 98 0 R 99 0 R 100 0 R 101 0 R 102 0 R 103 0 R Several statistical methods can also be adopted for groundwater mapping where adequate information on dif-ferent influencing parameters to groundwater accumulation and movement are available. …Their recovery method, well interference, multiple well systems, surface and subsurface exploitation and estimation of ground water potential, quality of ground water, artificial groundwater recharge planning, modelling, ground water project formulation. 169 0 R 170 0 R 171 0 R 172 0 R 173 0 R 174 0 R 175 0 R 176 0 R 177 0 R 178 0 R /Artifact /Sect endobj /Type /Page The magnetic, field that surrounds a current-carrying conductor is made up of concentric lines of force. methods alone. << Methods Of Groundwater Prospecting Lecture Notes. /Length 4601 /CS /DeviceRGB Seismic refraction method of groundwater exploration involves generation of seismic waves that are refracted back to surface due to the velocity and density discontinuities in the subsurface geological formations. /Parent 2 0 R >> Intrusive bodies such as dikes can often be distinguished on the basis of magnetic observations alone. Groundwater exploration in past years has reached a place of importance to the world and supplying groundwater to the needy is most precious of all. >> A geologic investigation begins with the collection, analysis, and hydrogeologic interpretation of, existing topographic maps, aerial photographs, geologic maps and logs, and other pertinent, records. 1 Groundwater Exploration Methods BY PROF. A. BALASUBRAMANIAN Centre for Advanced Studies in Earth Science, University of Mysore Mysore 2. endobj /Worksheet /Part A basic understanding of the characteristic seismic velocities for a variety of geologic materials, is necessary. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. /XObject << /StructParents 5 >> Mars-Relevant Field Experiences in Morocco: The Importance of Spatial Scales and Subsurface Explorat... Crooked line seismic survey in thrust-belt and mountainous area of Mizoram, North East India: A Case... Proterozoic Crustal Evolution of the Satpura Region: Implication for Oil and Gas Exploration, Advances in applications of magnetotellurics to hydrocarbon exploration in Papua New Guinea. << Recently, there has been increased interest in the use of seismic refraction survey for the exploration of hydrogeological reservoirs. /F1 41 0 R endobj This should be supplemented, when possible, by geologic field reconnaissance and by, evaluation of available hydrologic data on stream flow and springs, well yields, groundwater, recharge, discharge, and levels and water quality. /Contents 44 0 R logging of water well was carried out for the first time in 1953 by GSI. It is based on measuring the travel time of seismic waves through various subsurface geologic formations. Remote sensing provides multi-spectral, multi-temporal and multi-sensor data of. The, modern tools like remote sensing and aerial photography also provide a lot of spatial data for a. quick understanding of the domain for a better decision-making. To convert the resistivity picture into a geological picture, some knowledge of typical resistivity, values for different types of subsurface materials and the geology of the area surveyed, is. The visual interpretation of, satellite data in conjunction with limited field verification of these features will focus on the, priority zones. groundwater geochemical methods useful to the mineral exploration industry. The surface methods of groundwater exploration include the following: – Esoteric Methods – Geomorphologic methods – Geological & structural Methods – Soil and Micro-Biological Methods … /Parent 2 0 R The spacing between the current electrodes, pair P1-P2. /F1 41 0 R The different types of well-logging methods are: Electric well logging involves the continuous recording of electrical resistance / resistivity &, of the formations by a drill bore hole. (2013) have used remote sensing and GIS techniques for delineation of groundwater potential zones. Modern Groundwater Exploration details applications and results of proven twenty-first- century technologies and geological concepts adapted from the oil, gas, and mineral exploration industries for evaluating, developing, and managing previously undiscovered, massive, sustainable groundwater resources. /F1 41 0 R 209 0 R 210 0 R 211 0 R 212 0 R 213 0 R 214 0 R 215 0 R 216 0 R 217 0 R 218 0 R 393 0 R 394 0 R 395 0 R 395 0 R 395 0 R 395 0 R 395 0 R 395 0 R 395 0 R] The receiver also, detects the primary field (the resultant field is a combination of primary and secondary which, differs from the primary field in phase and amplitude). /Group << /S /Transparency /Type /Pages >> oladunjoye h.t.,1 1odunaike r.k., ogunsola p1. Several domal structures, horst-and-graben and thrust blocks of the region are potential sites for oil and gas exploration. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Resistivity surveys give a picture of the subsurface resistivity distribution. analysis the future artificial recharge sites. /F2 42 0 R of reasons in spite of further complication of reflection pattern due to irregular acquisition geometry inclusion at the time of acquisition. Sectioning is carried out to provide cross-sections of the ground, generally to give details of beds and layers. endobj TRADITIONAL METHODS IN GROUNDWATER EXPLORATION: WATER-WITCHING CASE STUDY – WA, UPPER WEST REGION OF GHANA BY MR KPIEBAYA PROSPER The methodology involves, the delineation of hydrogeomorphic units which are influenced by the hydro geological. However the expense of these instruments ($5000 to $20,000) has resulted in their limited use in developing countries. >> Geophysics and specifically, geoelectrical resistivity method is, generally, considered to be the most promising and most suitable method for ground water prospecting. /F2 42 0 R By using 20-30-cm-deep excavations, shallow subsurface exploration could reveal the last period of geological history that would have been unattainable by surface observation alone. Only the principles of these methods will be given here. /Group << /Parent 2 0 R Although not discussed explicitly, stream and lake water geochemistry can be utilized in similar ways to groundwaters. • developing groundwater as an effective sampling medium for mineral exploration • assisting in the characterisation of geothermal resources and technical issues associated with their development, and • assisting with site selection and monitoring of geologically stored CO 2. MT has been acquired at many of these locations, and continues to be a advanced exploration tool. /Subtype /Image There are two methods as Passive and Active methods. >> /CS /DeviceRGB >> Some of the, most common electrode arrays are Wenner, Schlumberger, pole-pole, pole-dipole and dipole-, Vertical electrical sounding, VES, is used to determine the resistivity variation with depth. The aquifer resistivity was obtained to be within the range of 2681.3–16255.0 Ωm with an average value of 9163.8 Ωm while the aquifer thickness ranged from 47.4 to 128.0 m with an average value of 60.71 m. The geohydraulic parameters estimated from the geoelectric data showed the following results; the hydraulic conductivity ranging from 0.0456 to 0.4278 m/day, transmissivity ranged from 2.1611 to 54.7536 m²/day and aquifer porosity ranging from 11.6040 to 21.6787%. To measure the apparent resistivity values a resistivity meter is used. << /CS /DeviceRGB >> 373 0 R 374 0 R 375 0 R 376 0 R 377 0 R 378 0 R 379 0 R 380 0 R 381 0 R 382 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R 179 0 R Remote sensing provides, Several geological, hydrogeological and geophysical methods are employed to target the, groundwater potential zones. Groundwater prospecting is a very. endobj The measured apparent resistivity values are normally plotted on a log-log graph paper. 19 0 obj /F1 41 0 R GEOS 4430 5310 Lecture Notes Groundwater … /Type /Group For exploration depths of 1,500 to 2,500 feet, the seismic reflection and controlled source audio magnetotellurics / magnetotellurics (CSAMT/MT) methods have proven to be successful. Groundwater prospecting involves various methods to locate suitable quality and quantity groundwater for extraction. /Contents 40 0 R /Chart /Sect However, so far neither any glaciogenic deposits nor any significant Neoproterozoic mineralised zone and carbon isotope excursion has been reported from the Neoproterozoic succession of this part of India. /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] EM field propagates above and below ground. >> /Tabs /S /ModDate (D:20170217172033+05'30') /S /Transparency The lower part of this rift succession is marked by extensive volcanism. Geophysical logging technique utilizes the measurement, of certain physical parameters across different subsurface formations with the help of sensing. changes in the resistivity. for sea water intrusion studies of coastal aquifers. the groundwater quality, and identify the nature, number and type of aquifers. 2013), multi-criteria decision evaluation (Murthy and Mamo 2009; Kumar et al. /F1 41 0 R /Parent 2 0 R >> /Group << /CreationDate (D:20170217172033+05'30') In some places, the drainages may be fully, controlled by the presence of minor and major structures like joints, faults and lineaments. /rgid (PB:313799747_AS:462719611609089@1487332360535) 8 0 obj /F2 42 0 R in almost all the water supply systems(borewells) of Salem district, for several years. << This paper aims to put forward the sources of inundation in underground mines, proactive control measures for controlling groundwater. PDF | As groundwater becomes increasingly important for living and environment, techniques are asked for an improved exploration. near the base of hillsides, valley slopes, and local scarps are very good indicators. From the current (I) and voltage (V) values, an apparent resistivity (, electrodes. /Group << 194 0 R 195 0 R 196 0 R 197 0 R 198 0 R 199 0 R 200 0 R] 17 0 obj The most severe limitation of the resistivity sounding method is that horizontal (or lateral), changes in the subsurface resistivity are commonly found. Contribution of geophysical methods to karst-system exploration: ... challenging in terms of groundwater, engineering and environmental issues. /Header /Sect /F1 41 0 R /Resources << ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. /Parent 2 0 R << The geophysical method which dominant by geophysicists become one of most popular method applied by engineers in civil engineering fields. Techniques used for this purpose include electrical resistivity depth profiling, seismic methods, the surface wave technique, and geophysical borehole logging. /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI] /Kids [5 0 R 6 0 R 7 0 R 8 0 R 9 0 R 10 0 R 11 0 R 12 0 R 13 0 R 14 0 R in selecting the groundwater potential zones in the upstream side. /RoleMap 19 0 R /Resources << olaleye o.a.2 1 department of physics, olabisi onabanjo university, ago-iwoye, ogun state, nigeria 2 department of earth sciences, ladoke akintola university of technology, These include frequency ratio (Davoodi et al. endobj /Font << The second method is the FDEM, (FDEM) EM surveys. /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] All content in this area was uploaded by A. Balasubramanian on Feb 17, 2017, CENTRE FOR ADVANCED STUDIES IN EARTH SCIENCE. /Title (EXPLORING GROUNDWATER) The various scientific methods, such as geophysical surveys, magnetics, electromagnetics, electrical resistivity, gravimetric, and seismic refraction are all reviewed, with examples shown. >> Exploration for Groundwater Aquifers, using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method, in Wad Hamid area – River Nile State, Sudan Mohammed Adam Ginaya1, Abbas Musa Yagoob2 Department of Water Resources Engineering, College of Water Engineering & Environment, Sudan University of Science & Technology 1 College of Petroleum Engineering and Technology, Sudan University of Science & … 6.5.3.3 Applications. /Group << >> They are classified into surface and sub-surface methods. The Upper Vindhyan Supergroup was deposited in the foreland belt of the Satpura Mountain and was subjected to several episodes of upliftment during Neoproterozoic and possibly up to Early Palaeozoic. groundwater. /Resources << The FDEM, Transmitter produces continuous EM field. /Font << stream Only the principles of these methods will be given here. changes in the elastic properties of the formations. /S /Transparency /CS /DeviceRGB 7 [216 0 R 217 0 R 218 0 R 219 0 R 220 0 R 221 0 R 222 0 R 223 0 R 224 0 R 225 0 R /Type /Group The purpose of electrical surveys is to determine the subsurface resistivity distribution by, making measurements on the ground surface. /Creator measured at M and N, respectively. /Diagram /Figure 114 0 R 115 0 R 116 0 R 117 0 R 118 0 R 119 0 R 120 0 R 121 0 R 122 0 R 123 0 R endobj /Type /Group /K [64 0 R 65 0 R 66 0 R 67 0 R 68 0 R 69 0 R 70 0 R 71 0 R 72 0 R 73 0 R It is available in different proportions, in various rock types and at various depths, on the surface layer of the earth. 22 0 obj >> Contribution of geophysical methods to karst-system exploration: ... challenging in terms of groundwater, engineering and environmental issues. endobj 188 0 R 188 0 R 188 0 R 188 0 R 188 0 R 189 0 R 190 0 R 191 0 R 192 0 R 193 0 R (2010), Binay Kumar et al. >> >> 166 0 R] lower resistivity values. /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] >> /F1 41 0 R This, is because the resistivity of a particular rock or soil sample depends on a number of factors such. /CA 1 The controlling methods have also been identified and reported. Presence of Halophytes, plants with a high tolerance for soluble salts, and white, efflorescence of salt at ground surface, indicate the presence of shallow brackish or saline, groundwater. /Annots [30 0 R 31 0 R 32 0 R 33 0 R 34 0 R 35 0 R 36 0 R 37 0 R 38 0 R 39 0 R] /ca 1 The mechanical separation of different size grains (mainly clays and attached minerals) would also support the identification of individual components. /CS /DeviceRGB PDF Methods of Groundwater Exploration. These velocities help to identify the nature of alluvium or bedrock. However, it is less sensitive to horizontal changes in the subsurface resistivity. surface geophysical methods is therefore the vertical electrical sounding method. 328 0 R 329 0 R 330 0 R 331 0 R 332 0 R 333 0 R] /Type /XObject >> 266 0 R 267 0 R 268 0 R 269 0 R 270 0 R 271 0 R 272 0 R 273 0 R 274 0 R 275 0 R /F3 45 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] >> In view of the reported occurrence of gas bearing zones in the Vindhyans, availability of carbonaceous horizons in earlier units, and suitable geotectonic environment, this region shows potential for source rock and their required maturation. /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] Alternate high and low gravity anomaly patterns extending parallel to the regional trend of the Satpura Mountain Belt and the Vindhyan Mountains indicate presence of several horsts and grabens, aligned in ENE-WSW direction. /Tabs /S 6 [201 0 R 202 0 R 203 0 R 204 0 R 204 0 R 205 0 R 206 0 R 207 0 R 208 0 R 208 0 R This array has been, and is still, widely used in resistivity/I.P. New exploration tools and techniques for a breakthrough paradigm of regional groundwater occurrence Fresh water is undoubtedly our most precious resource aside from the air we breathe, and the only commodity whose cost has steadily risen over time. Coiling a current-carrying conductor around a core material that can be easily, magnetized, such as iron, can form an electromagnet.